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Sunday, August 28, 2016

Week 19 (Book 4): Wisdom, Understanding and Knowledge

 


STORY OF CHANNAH: 19. And they arose early in the morning, and prostrated themselves before the Lord: and they returned and came to their house, to Ramah, and Elkanah knew Hannah, his wife, and the Lord remembered her.                   

QUALITY OF PIRKEI AVOT: understanding  

PROVERBS: Chapter 19

TZADDIKIM:  Rabbi Shalom Shabazi and Rabbi Shalom Sharabi (the Rashash) (10th of Shevat)

Week 19 is the week of Yud Shevat, the yahrzeit of the Previous Rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn of Lubavitch. It is also the date in which the Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, became rebbe a year later.

As mentioned in the previous week, Shevat is connected to the attribute of pleasure, Ta’anug, as well as faith, Emunah. The verse for this week mentions marital relations, which in this case represents both concepts. The verse mentions also how Hashem remembered Channah, and how her Emunah in Hashem was rewarded. In the Torah, marital relations is often referred to as knowledge, Da’at. Da’at is the connecting point between the male aspect of intellect, Chochmah (wisdom), and the female one, Binah (understanding). It is what allows Chochmah to impregnate Binah.

This week’s Pirkei Avot quality is that people enjoy understanding (Binah ) from those that study Torah for its own sake. In the verse above, Channah represents understanding, Binah.

Again, the entire Book of Proverbs is about enjoying understanding, from those that have it. Chapter 19 continues this theme. Two verses in this chapter specifically speak of understanding:

8. He who acquires sense loves his soul; he who guards understanding will eventually find good.  
(...)
25. Beat a scorner, and a simple man will gain cunning; reprove a man of understanding, and he will understand knowledge. 

Rashi comments that this is a reference to the plagues in Egypt (reminiscent of the song of the Locust for this week in Book 1.

Besides from the Previous Rebbe, this week also contains the yahrzeit of two great Tzadikim of Yemeni descent: Rabbi Shalom Shabazi and Rabbi Shalom Sharabi (the Rashash), whose yahrzeits are on the 10th of Shevat (like the Friedieker Rebbe).

Rabbi Shalom Shabazi was the leader of his generation, known as "Mori," and was a tremendous scholar and the greatest of Yemenite poets. https://jemcentral.org/2020/10/29/doing-good-one-base-at-a-time/

The Rashash is the father of all contemporary sephardic kabbalists. https://www.chabad.org/kabbalah/article_cdo/aid/2444216/jewish/Rabbi-Shalom-Sharabi-The-Rashash.htm

Also having yahrzeits this week are two rabbis from renowned Chassidic dynasties: Rabbi David Biederman of Lelov (7th of Shevat) and (every once in a while) Rabbi Mordechai of Lechovitch (13th of Shevat - discussed next week). Rabbi David Biederman of Lelov was one of the main disciples of the Seer of Lublin, and the founder of the Lelover Chassidic dynasty. He was known for his extraordinary ability to look at every Jew in the positive light. He was also the teacher of Rebbe Yitzhak of Vorka, who was also known for his tremendous Ahavat Yisrael.

Sunday, August 21, 2016

Week 20 (Book 4): Hanging in There Through the Winter




STORY OF CHANNAH: 20. And it was, when the time came about (lit. after the seasons and the days), after Hannah had conceived, that she bore a son, and she called his name Samuel, because (she said); "I asked him of the Lord."

QUALITY: and power, as is stated (Proverbs 8:14): "Mine are counsel and wisdom, I am understanding, mine is power."           

PROVERBS: Chapter 20

TZADIKKIM: Rabbi Mordechai of Lechovitch and Rav Yechiel Danziger (first Rebbe of Alexander)     

Week 20 is the week of Tu B’Shevat, the New Year of the Trees. The verse from the story of Channah describes the birth of Shmuel and his naming. Conception and birth appears to be one of the major themes of the month of Shevat as well. In Shevat, the fruit is there in potential, but it still takes a change of "seasons and days" for the the tree to actually bear fruit. In the meantime, one must still deal with the harshness of winter.  

This week’s Pirkei Avot quality is that people enjoy “power” from those that study Torah for its own sake (Lishmah). (Gevurah, also translated as “might,” “strength” or “discipline,” as well as judgment) In Channah’s story above, Eli’s blessing gives Channah the necessary strength to bear a child. Shmuel’s name and the explanation given for it demonstrate that everything came from Hashem.

Chapter 20 of the Book of Proverbs contains the above theme of Gevurah, related to might, discipline, but also judgement:

2. Fear of a king is like a lion's roar; he who provokes him forfeits his life.   (…)
8. A king sits upon a throne of judgment; all evil is spread out before him.            
9. Who will say, "I have cleansed my heart; I have become purified of my sin"? (…)
14. "It is bad, it is bad, " says the buyer, but when he goes away, then he boasts.   

Rashi interprets the last verse above to be specifically referring to difficulties and pains, as well as the rewards associated with Gevurah:

“It is bad, it is bad,” says the buyer: If one acquires Torah through poverty and the pains of hunger, he says, “Woe is to me for this evil and for this trouble,” but when he goes away full of wisdom…

then he boasts: about the pain he suffered.

This week usually contains the yahrzeits of two important Chassidic dynasties: Rabbi Mordechai of Lechovitch (13th of ShevatRav Yechiel Danziger of Alexander (14th of Shevat) and Rav Elimelech Menachem Mendel Landau of Strikov (19th of Shevat). Alexander and Strikov are extremely interrelated. Strikov is essentially a continuation of the Alexander dynasty.

Rabbi Mordechai of Lechovitch is one of the foremost figures in the Karlin dynasty. Lechovitch later branched out into the chassidic dynasties of Kobrin,  Koidanov, and Slonim. There are many Chassidic stories about him, as well as many of his recorded Chassidic statements. He once gave the following blessing: “Don’t fool yourself, don’t fool G-d, and don’t fool people.”  https://kehilalinks.jewishgen.org/lyakhovichi/RabbiMordechai.htm; http://asimplejew.blogspot.com/2008/05/question-answer-with-rabbi-shlomo.html

Rav Yechiel Danziger of Alexander was the founder of the dynasty, which prior to the Holocaust was the second largest, following only that of Ger. He was a student of Rabbi Yitzchak Kalish of Vorka. After Rabbi Yitzhak’s son, Rabbi Menachem Mendel of Vorka, passed away, many of his disciples became Alexander Chassidim. Many of Rav Yechiel’s teachings are recorded in the primary text of this group, Yismach Yisroel, written by Rav Yechiel’s son.

After Rav Yechiel’s son, Rabbi Yisroel Yitzchok Danziger, passed away, the mantle of leadership was eventually transferred to Rav Elimelech Menachem Mendel Landau of Strikov. His yahrzeit also often falls on this week, the 19th of Shevat. The latter only accepted leadership once his brother, Rabbi Tzvi Aharon passed away. During the leadership of Rav Menachem Mendel, there were 150 Strikover houses of study throughout Poland.He also founded a Yeshiva in Israel, Yeshivas Zechusa DeAvraham, and his Torah thoughts are published in two works: Maggid Devarav L’Yaakov and Bayeshishim Chochmah.

Other yahrzeits this week include Rav Yaakov Yehoshua Falk Katz (the Pnei Yehoshua, 14th of Shevat), Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan (14th of Shevat), Rav Yechezkel of Kuzmir (grandfather of the first Modzitzer Rebbe, 17th of Shevat), and (sometimes) Rav Shmuel Weinberg of Slonim (the Divrei Shmuel, 19th of Shevat)



Sunday, August 14, 2016

Week 21 (Book 4): Malchut (Kingship)




STORY OF CHANNAH: 21. And the man, Elkanah and his entire household, went up to slaughter to the Lord, the sacrifice of the days and his vow.

QUALITY OF PIRKEI AVOT: The Torah grants him sovereignty (kingship)     

PROVERBS:  Chapter 21

TZADDIKIM: Rav Menachem Mendel of Kotzk (22nd of Shevat) and Rav Yehoshua Rokeach (23rd of Shevat)

Week 21 is the last week of  Shevat, and includes the yahrzeit of Rebbetzin Chaya Mushka, the wife of the Rebbe. The verse from the story of Channah describes Elkanah’s annual pilgrimage to the Tabernacle. The term “household,” Beitoh, in the Torah, is usually a reference to someone’s wife. This verse comes to preface the fact that Channah chooses to stay behind to nurse Shmuel, and bring him to the Tabernacle, to live there, only once he is weaned.  

This week’s Pirkei Avot quality is that the Torah grants kingship, Malchut. Malchut, as previously explained, is a feminine sefirah (Divine attribute). (See Book 1, Week 21) Malchut receives its energy from the other sefirot. Here, too, the verse states that the Torah gives (Notenet) kingship. It is up to us to know how to receive it. In the above verse, Elkanah ascends to the Tabernacle as an act of gratitude.

Chapter 21 of the Book of Proverbs begins by speaking about kingship, and also contains reference to the central role of a wife (in this case, for the bad):

1. A king's heart is like rivulets of water in the Lord's hand; wherever He wishes, He turns it. (…)
9. It is better to sit on the corner of a roof than with a quarrelsome wife and the house of a friend. (…)
19. It is better to dwell in a desert land than [with] a quarrelsome and vexatious wife.

Besides Rebbetzin Chaya Mushka’s yahrzeit (22nd of Shevat), this week also contains the yahrzeits of Rebbe Menachem Mendel of Kotzk (also the 22nd of Shevat) and Rebbe Yehoshua Rokeach (the Second Rebbe of Belz, son of the Sar Shalom, 23rd of Shevat).

Rebbe Menachem Mendel of Kotzk was known for his immense Torah knowledge, already achieved at a very young age, and for his uncompromising pursuit of truth. His often sharp and penetrating sayings cut through people’s ego and fantasies. Among his students were the first two leaders of the dynasty of of Ger, the largest Chassidic group in all of Poland.

The 22nd of Shevat is also the yahrzeit of one of the Kotzker’s closest disciples, Rabbi Yehuda Leib (Leibel) Eiger of Lublin, grandson of Rabbi Akiva Eiger. The 21st of Shevat is the yahrzeit of another disciple of the Kotzker, R. Yechiel Meir Lifschitz of Gostynin (Der Tilim Yid).

Rebbe Yehoshua Rokeach expanded the Belz dynasty begun by his father into the largest in Galicia. He was known for his vigorous battle against the Haskalah, the Jewish secularist “enlightenment” movement. Rav Yehoshua was a tremendous Torah scholar, who was also known for common sense in his leadership. He inspired his followers to study Torah with great devotion, and set up programs for newly married men to continue to study in Yeshiva.

Other yahrzeits this week include (sometimes) Rav David HaLevi Segal (author of the “Taz, the Turei Zahav, 26th of Shevat) and Rabbi Mordechai Yosef Elazar Leiner (the "Tiferes Yosef," Radziner Rebbe, 26th of Shevat)


Sunday, August 7, 2016

Week 22 (Book 4): Dominion versus Kingship, Royalty




STORY OF CHANNAH: 22. But Hannah did not go up, for she said to her husband: "Until the child is weaned, then I shall bring him, and he shall appear before the Lord, and abide there forever.

QUALITY OF PIRKEI AVOT: dominion           

PROVERBS: Chapter 22

Week 22 is the week of Rosh Chodesh Adar. The verse from the story of Channah continues last week’s description of Elkanah’s annual pilgrimage, in which Channah chooses to stay behind to nurse Shmuel. Interestingly, the text emphasizes how Channah told her husband the reason why she chose not to go. This additional emphasis, demonstrates Channah’s concern for her husband, as well as a certain level of subservience, even though, Channah ultimately has her way in the matter. Adar is the month of Purim, which is the story of how another woman, Queen Esther, is able to convince her husband, Achashverosh, to save the Jewish people and destroy its enemy, Haman, who was effectively ruler of the kingdom at the time.

This week’s Pirkei Avot quality is that the Torah grants dominion, Memshalah. Memshalah is different from kingship, Malchut, in that it does not necessarily reflect royalty. One can rule without being king, like Joseph did as viceroy, and like LeHavdil, Haman did, as mentioned above. Memshalah appears to reflect more of a masculine power, connected to shear power and force, while Malchut is has a more elevated sublime feminine quality, as reflected in the Sefirah of Malchut, which is connected to speech. This is all very much connected to the above verse in Channah’s story and to Adar.

Chapter 22 of the Book of Proverbs is very much about power. Its focus is primarily on economic power, physical wealth.

1. A name is chosen above great wealth; good favor over silver and gold.
2. A rich man and a poor man were visited upon; the Lord is the Maker of them all.          
(…)
4. In the wake of humility comes fear of the Lord, riches, honor, and life.  
(…)
7. A rich man will rule over the poor, and a borrower is a slave to a lender.

The word used for “rule” in verse 7 is Yimshol, from the same root as Memshalah.



This year there are two months of Adar, and yahrzeits are usually commemorated on the second one, unless the person passed away in the first Adar in a year that also had two. We will therefore, leave the descriptions for the next month, when we repeat weeks 22 through 25.  
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