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Thursday, December 27, 2012

Chassidic Concepts: Acquiring a Master Quotes from the Rebbe's Sicha on Purim 5747 (1987)


The Rebbe writes about the qualification of a Rav (close to Moshe Rabbeinu's Yahrzeit):

This is one of the reasons for the recent stress on the Mishnah’s statement, ‘Make for yourself a Rav.’ Since the Rav is neutral and uninvolved, he will certainly be able to give sound advice.

Even with this advice, however, a person might complain that he’s unsure whether or not he chose a proper Rav. Here again, the Torah provides guidance, in a verse which also speaks of the pre-Messianic era (Malachi, 2:7), ‘...seek Torah from his mouth, because he is an angel of G‑d.’ The Talmud explains, ‘If he resembles an angel of G‑d, then ‘seek Torah from his mouth,’ and if he does not, then don’t.’

But how can one tell if the Rav resembles an angel of G‑d; one never even saw an angel of G‑d! Here again, the Torah provides guidance, in the works of the Rambam, where he describes the lives of angels: ‘there is no eating or drinking...no jealousy, hatred or enmity.’

Therefore, in order to tell whether or not someone is fit to be a Rav, one must see if he fits this description. Is his spiritual life governed without influence of physical factors (corresponding to ‘no eating or drinking’)? Is he free of jealousy, hatred, etc.?

Of course, as always the Evil Inclination comes along with another objection — and one ‘according to the Torah’ (since it likes to conceal its true motives in the holy garb of a ‘silk kapote’). ‘Isn’t one of the signs of a true talmid chacham,’ claims the Evil Inclination, ‘that he is ‘vengeful like a serpent’?’ According to this reasoning, peaceful behavior would not be a correct way of identifying a qualified ‘Rav’!

Fortunately, the Torah also answers this clearly. When is it proper for a talmid chacham to behave in this way? Only when someone has shamed him publicly, and a general insult to the Torah is involved. However, should he be insulted in private, the Torah requires the exact opposite response. In the words of the Rambam, the way of talmidei chachamim is to ‘listen to insult without answering back; and furthermore to forgive the person who uttered the insult.’

Aside from these signs of a Rav, there is an obvious prerequisite: that the person has the signs indicative of a Jew in general. As the Talmud says, ‘This nation has three signs: they are merciful, bashful, and kind.’ Since these are called ‘signs,’ it is impossible that a person practice them only in private. To be considered a sign, the person must actually behave in these ways.

It should be reiterated that this process of choosing a proper Rav is associated with the necessity of having everything ‘clarified, refined, and purified’ — both regarding choosing the Rav and regarding his guidance in clarifying ambiguous cases.


Wednesday, December 26, 2012

Chassidic Concepts based on Rebbe's Maamar for Shabat Parashat Yitro, Mevarchim Adar I 5732


Chassidic Concepts based on Rebbe's Maamar for Shabat Parashat Yitro, Mevarchim Adar I 5732

Two Kavim: Chesed and Gevurah

Torah is Machriah both of them.

Leviathan and Shor HaBor, Tzadik and Beinoni: Explaining Chassidic Concepts Based on the Writings of the Lubavitcher Rebbe

In the Rebbe's first Ma'amar for the Torah Portion of Shelach, delivered on the Shabat blessing the month of Tammuz, 5711, the Rebbe delves into why the Torah states that the decision to send the spies was dependent on Moshe's initiative, and what exactly would have been Moshe's rationale for sending spies given that he knew that the entrance and conquest of the Land of Israel would be miraculous in nature.

The Rebbe explains that the entrance into the Land of Israel first and foremost represented the beginning of the practical mitzvot. The Rebbe then explains what it is written in Likutei Torah (from the Alter Rebbe) that there are two kinds of Tzadikim (righteous individuals): those in the category of Leviatan and those in the category of Shor HaBor.

Leviatan comes from the word, Levayah (accompaniment), and represents connection, and it represents the Tzadikim that are involved primarily in spiritual "unifications" (Yehudim) The Leviathan is a fish, from the sea, which represents the hidden spiritual realm. An example of this kind of Tzadik would be Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai during his 13 years inside a cave with his son Elazar. There, Rabbi Shimon and his son performed the mitzvot in a spiritual way only. The Arizal was also a Leviathan type of Tzadik, as was the Baal Shem Tov as well.

Shor HaBor represents Tzadikim that are involved primarily with the practical, physical mitzvot. Shor means an ox, and there is a saying that "Rav Tvuot beKoach haShor," great produce comes with the strength of the ox. There is a special advantage to souls called "beasts of the land," as we see in the Heavenly Chariot (which had images of animals, such as the ox), and how the loftier one's spiritual source, the deeper into physicality it falls. Man is dependent on the food he eats because in truth the food comes from a higher spiritual source than himself.

Even Tzadikim in the Leviatan category have to perform the Divine service of physical mitzvot, unless there is a decree from above, as was the case with Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai.

In the desert, the Jews' spiritual services was that of Leviatan Tzadikim, spiritual in nature. As they were now about to enter the service that involved physicality as well, they needed special assistance from Above, to receive additional strength. That was in fact the main purpose of Moshe sending out the spies, in order to additional strength from Above, in order to be involved in the service of Shor HaBor Tzadikim as well.

This specifically had to come from Moshe, who was complete nullified to Hashem, and could sense the higher level of involvement in the physical world. That is why, our sages explain, Moshe longed so much to enter the Land of Israel: to be able to perform the physical mitzvot connected to the Land itself.

The spies, although "kosher" individuals, did not have this same level of nullification. They did not sense the holiness of this service, and instead claimed that "the Land devoured its inhabitants" - it made them physical like the Land itself. Two of the spies, however, Caleb and Joshua, understood that it was in fact possible to elevate the physicality of the Land. These two spies were only able to come to this conclusion because they themselves were nullified to Moshe.

The Rebbe also compares mission of the spies that Moshe sent, compared to those sent by Joshua. Moshe's spies explored the entire Land and the 7 Canaanite nations that lived there. This is compared to the Divine service of the Tzadik, to fix the 7 Middot (also called Sefirot) in their essence. The mission of the spies of Joshua, however, are connected to the Beinoni (intermediary) only scouted Jericho, which comes from the word for Reiach, smell, and represents the rectification of only the outer garments of the soul: its thought, speech, and deed.

[The Tanya teaches that there are two kinds of service: that of the Tzadik (completely righteous) and that of the Beinoni (intermediary). The heart of the Tzadik is a like a Land that has been completely conquered. There is no Other, and therefore there is no struggle. The heart of the Beinoni is like a single Land with two competing governments, only one of which is preoccupied with Jewish causes. Neither should the Beinoni delude himself and think he is a Tzadik, nor should the fact that he is a Beinoni make him sad in any way, for it is exactly in this struggle that G-d finds the greatest joy. The Beinoni should also not ignore the Other, or even fail to help him in his time of need. On the contrary, he should raise the Other, and bring him along in the service of God. The Land of Israel today is like the heart of a Beinoni.]

Sunday, December 23, 2012

"The Kabbalah of Time" Co-Author Featured in the Miami Herald


Aventura author presents book on Jewish pioneers’ struggles in Brazil

Email Ann Helen Wainer at JewishBrazilianConnection@gmail.com


Aventura author Ann Helen Wainer gave a history lesson on the relationship between Jews and Brazilians as she presented her new book at the North Miami Beach Public Library last week.
In her book, Jewish and Brazilian Connections to New York, India and Ecology, she refers to her Brazilian homeland, which is where the first Jewish pioneers to New York came from.
With the history of persecution in Europe, Jews found refuge in Recife, Brazil, which was occupied by the Dutch. Government leaders allowed Jews to freely practice their religion.
But, after the Dutch lost their place in Brazil to the Portuguese, Jewish people no longer were tolerated and they began immigrating in 1654 to New York – known at the time as New Amsterdam.
Wainer, who is Jewish and originally from Brazil, has written several books and talks freely about the struggle of Jewish settlers.
“It is necessary to take a step back and understand the adversities that these pioneer Jews faced,” she said. “Before their arrival in New Amsterdam, they faced material losses, jumping from ship to ship, imprisonment and much more. They were ill-prepared for the prejudice and intolerance they found.”
Wainer, an attorney in Brazil who moved to the United States in 1999, is separated by only one generation in her family from the surviving Jews of the Holocaust. She highlights this in a previous book, “Family Portrait.”
Rabbi Daniel Kahane, a co-author on another of her books – “The Kabbalah of Time” – talked about the strong history and Jewish culture represented in Wainer’s writing.
“It shows just how deeply ingrained the struggle for fairness and equality is in Jewish religion, culture and tradition,” said Kahane, an attorney who volunteers as a teacher at Aventura Chabad. “Fixing the world, changing it and making it a better place – what is known in Hebrew as ‘Tikkun Olam’ – is an essential aspect of being a Jew.”
Wainer, who currently teaches at Florida Atlantic University about the Jewish connection with the Brazilian Cinematheque, talked at her book signing about the success that Jewish people have had in the United States and the importance of remembering the struggle it took to get there.
Her son, David Wainer, 28, reiterated that point.
“Jews have it good in this country. They represent a well-off minority group, and the book highlights that,” said the younger Wainer, a Boston University graduate who is a business reporter currently based in Israel. “It wasn’t always like that,” he said. “There were pioneers [who] had to fight for their survival and the basic ability to be who they want to be. It provides the proper context for the Jewish community in the U.S.”
Wainer closed out her lecture by telling the crowd the process she went through and the support she received while writing her book.
“I believe when you have a purpose like this, the universe has a way of conspiring in your favor,” she said. “It made me feel very connected to this country and Brazil, and it helped me understand more about where my two hearts are.”

Read more here: http://www.miamiherald.com/2013/12/16/3822422/aventura-author-presents-book.html#storylink=cpy

Monday, December 17, 2012

Chomer and Tzurah, Ohr Yashar and Ohr Chozer: Explaining Chassidic/Kabbalistic Concepts Based on the Writings of the Lubavitcher Rebbe

In the Rebbe's first Ma'amar for Shavuot, the Rebbe explains the significance of concept that the Torah was created 2000 years before Creation and that it was (and will be) G-d's joy (Sha'ashuah). Within the Ma'amar, the Rebbe explains in passing the concepts of Chomer and Tzurah and Ohr Yashar and Ohr Chozer.

The Rebbe explains that everything in the world is created with material (Chomer) and [spiritual] form (Tzurah). The material aspect of created things is made from the word of G-d, while their form come from the will and desire of G-d. The Torah is connected to the creation of both aspects.

The Rebbe also explains that there are two ways in which G-dliness is drawn down to the world: a light that comes straight down (Ohr Yashar) and a light that is reflected (Ohr Chozer). The same is true for Torah study, and is connected to the two kinds of Talmuds that exist. When one studies something and immediately understands it, that's related to the Ohr Yashar and that the Talmud Yerushalmi (the Jerusalem Talmud). If someone studies something and does not immediately understand it, having many questions on the subject, that's related to the Talmud Bavli (the Babylonian Talmud).

Studying in the way of Ohr Chozer, the Babylonian Talmud, brings one to levels that are higher beyond measure than studying through the way of Ohr Yashar. Yet, we see that that are the Talmud Yerushalmi also has advantages that are beyond measure, as we see from Rabbi Zeirah, who fasted 100 fasts in order to forget the Babylonian Talmud in order to study the Jerusalem Talmud. Both ways are important.

There are two levels of study through Ohr Chozer. First, is study with effort in order to understand what one is study. Second, higher still, is study with effort to understand what actions are needed and a desire to understand the essence of G-d, accompanied by awe and fear of not fully complying with the Divine will.

Torah study through the ways described above, particularly through the second, higher level of Ohr Chozer, brings pleasure (Ta'anug) and joy (Sha'ashua), for us and for G-d Himself.     

Thursday, December 13, 2012

How This World Brings the Soul to a Greater Love and Fear of G-d - Explaining Chassidic Concepts Based on the Discourses of the Lubavitcher Rebbe

In his first Ma'amar for the Torah portion of Ekev, related on Shabat Mevarchim Elul, 5711, the Rebbe explains the verse from the Zohar which states that "three 'knots' are tied together: Israel with the Torah, and the Torah with Hashem, one with each other, all together, level upon level, hidden and revealed.

The language used, tied, knotted (Hitkashrut), implies three separate entities. Would it not be better to speak in terms of Dveikut, which implies complete oneness? The Rebbe explains that the reality of the matter is that once the soul comes down to this world it is no longer completely one with Hashem as it was in the upper worlds.

However, there are advantages to the soul coming down to this world. The Rebbe illustrates this by bringing a verse from the Song of Songs, "Shechorah Ani veNa'avah, Benot Yerushalayim," I am darkened yet I am beautiful, daughters of Jerusalem." Yerushalayim refers to the level of Yirah Shalem, fear of Hashem that is whole, complete. This can only be achieved in the higher worlds. The soul in this lowly world is speaking to those in the higher world, stating that it has been darkened, it no longer has the same closeness and fear, yet it is beautiful, in the sense that in this world the soul can climb even higher. Once the soul is separated from Hashem and placed in a body, it feels that it is distant from G-d, and that it lives in a dry land without water, and that it could even sin, bringing it even further from G-d. This creates within it a thirst and a love for G-d that is higher than before.

The Rebbe also explains that even regarding fear, even though it is impossible that the quantity of the fear be greater in this lowly world, where one does not fully grasp G-dliness, nevertheless the quality of the fear can become greater. Fear of G-d comes from the idea of Bittul, nullification. There are two level of nullification. The first is when the individual believes that the worlds are nothing compared to Hashem, Kula Kamei Kelo Chashiv, and the second is when one realizes that there is nothing but Him, Ein Od Milevadoh. When the soul is in the upper worlds, it is at the first level - it absorbs G-dliness, but to an extent still sees itself as a separate entity. In this world, once the soul realizes that everything that masks and hides Hashem's oneness is a lie, this brings to an even greater nullification than before.

Monday, December 10, 2012

Spiritual Ascent and Heavenly Descent: Explaining Basic Chassidic Concepts Based on the Writings of the Lubavitcher Rebbe

With G-d's help, here is another short excerpt explaining Chassidic/Kabbalistic concepts, based on the writings of the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson.

In one of his first Ma'amarim, the Rebbe explores why the Torah portion of Bechukotai uses the words, "Vehitalachti BeTochachem," "I shall walk within you." Vehitalachti is a reflexive form of the verb "to walk." A simpler way of writing, "I shall walk" would be, "Vehalachti."

The Rebbe explains that Vehitalachti refers to two kinds of connections to G-d: ascent and descent. The Rebbe uses the metaphor of a mountain, and the differences between one that needs to climb up the mountain versus one that descends.

To ascend a mountain, the Rebbe explains, one needs to know the paths and ways, to have the proper clothing, and to be particularly strong. When it comes to going up the "mountain of G-d," the paths and ways are the Torah and mitzvot. One must learn Torah properly, with the proper intention (Lishmah), and not for any alterior motive. First and foremost, one must have fear of Heaven. When it comes to mitzvot, it is also not enough just to perform the act, but one must make sure to perform it in a way that actually accomplishes what was intended (also Lishmah). The Rebbe gives an example that one can be performing the mitzvah of honoring one's parents while actually embarrassing them. Furthermore, the Rebbe explains that knowing the "ways" up the mountain refers to knowledge of G-dliness, which will automatically bring to love and fear of G-d. In the process, one must elevate not only the G-dly soul, but the animal soul as well. The proper "clothing" refers to the "letters" of one's thought, speech, and deed. These requirements apply to going up to Heaven, going up from the Lower Garden of Eden to the Higher Garden of Eden, and the infinite levels that the Garden of Eden in fact contains.

Going down the mountain, on the other hand, does not have any of these requirements. All that is needed is to be able to be "Metzamtzem," to be able to make oneself smaller. Here to there are different ways in which Hashem descends to us. Using the metaphor of a king, one can only get closer to the king in accordance to one's position. Some people make it only to the entrance way, some to the inner hallway, and some to the king's room itself. However there are times when the king himself reveals himself to all his subjects in his royal garments. These revelations are so strong that all are nullified to his power. This is comparable to the Redemption from Egypt and the Giving of the Torah. At other times, he visits his subjects with ordinary day-to-day garments. The relationship with the King when he is wearing ordinary clothing is actually greater and more personal than when He is in his royal garments. This is comparable to the mitzvot, which are G-d Himself enclothed in the physical world. 

Both the ascent and the descent have advantages. Although the ascent is limited to one's potential and service, the connection is more fully internalized (Pnimi). The revelation that comes from descent is unchanged from its source above, but is only absorbed in a more "surrounding" way (Sovev) and is not fully internalized. 

[Both kinds of connection are important, and both are reflected in the year itself. May we merit to be able to relate to G-d in both ways, and reach the full meaning of the verse, "Vehitalachti BeTochachem," "I shall walk within you."

Sunday, December 9, 2012

(Updated) Sacrifices, Prayer, and Creating a Dwelling Place for G-d in the Lowly Realms: Explaining Chassidic/Kabbalistic Concepts Based on the Writings of the Lubavitcher Rebbe

In the Rebbe's first Ma'amar as rebbe for the Torah Portion of Pinchas, for Shabat Mevarchim Menachem Av (the Shabat that blesses the Jewish month of Av), 5711, the Rebbe delves deeply into the meaning behind the Temple sacrifices and how they relate to prayer.

The Rebbe first points to an apparent contradiction: the Torah makes clear that sacrifices are the key aspect of Divine service, yet the Torah also states that listening to/obeying Hashem is more important than sacrifices. The Rebbe also states that we must better understand the nature of sacrifices themselves. As our sages ask, "If a person sinned, what sin did the animal commit?" 

The explanation of the latter question is that atonement comes when a person meditates on the fact that everything that is now happening to the animal was meant to be happening to him. This is also the concept of prayer being done in the place of sacrifices. 

The Alter Rebbe explains in Likutei Torah that the Olah sacrifices (the burnt elevation offering) involved the sacrificing of flesh, sinews, and bones. Bones are connected to the brain, while the flesh is connected to blood and to the heart. Prayer replaces sacrifices in the sense that concentrating on the nullification of the worlds before G-d is connected to the service of the mind, while arousing the emotional attributes (middot) linked to love and fear is connected to the service of the heart. The Rebbe then states that to some extent there is an advantage of prayer over sacrifices, but sacrifices are just "as if" what happens to the animal happens to the person, while through prayer affects the person's soul directly.

Still, we see that sacrifices are higher than prayer, in that we ask that our prayers be accepted [as sacrifices] and that the Temple be speedily rebuilt and that we may bring actual sacrifices soon. The reason sacrifices are higher is because the holy spark found in the animal comes from a higher source. As we've mentioned before, the lower something is found in Creation, the higher its spiritual source. 

The Rebbe then asks, that if this is the case, then the sacrifices brought in the First and Second Temple should be higher than those brought in the Third Temple, when "the spirit of unholiness will have been removed from the land." At the same time, on a purely spiritual level, prayer should remain higher than Third Temple sacrifices as well. Yet, we see that the Third Temple sacrifices are in fact the highest in all respects. This also requires further explanation.

To understand all of this, it is important to begin by explaining that the purpose of the Creation of all the worlds was that Hashem desired a home in the lowest realms. (Midrash Tanchuma) A home means a place, just like it is for people, when a person's complete essence and substance can be found. The essence of the Ein Sof was to be found there, like our sages' explanation [expounded in the last Ma'amar of the Previous Rebbe] of the verse in the Song of Songs, Bati LeGani, "I've come to My Garden." Gani should be read Gnuni, My wedding canopy. Hashem's essence could be found in this lowly world.

The main service that makes for a dwelling for Hashem in this world is that of sacrifices. In the Garden of Eden, Adam is told to work it and to keep it. The same terminology for "to keep" (LeShamrah) is used regarding sacrifices, "Tishmeru Lehakriv." Sacrifices remove the masks and hiddeness of Hashem, to the extent that G-dliness becomes completely revealed. The animal sacrifices would be consumed by a Heavenly fire. The sacrifices would reach to the "Razah d'Ein Sof," the secret of "the Infinite," higher even to how Hashem is usually referred to in Kabbalah, Ohr Ein Sof (the "Light of the Infinite").

Sacrifices in in Gan Eden also had a higher aspect than those of the times of the Temple, because in Gan Eden there was no evil in the world. The sacrifice's soul purpose was to bring Hashem in the world, and not for the purposes of elevating the fallen sparks after Adam and Eve at from the Tree of Knowledge, which introduced evil into the world and forced them out of the Gan Eden.

Nevertheless, spiritual service after the giving of the Torah contained a higher aspect than the one in Gan Eden. Before the giving of the Torah, the higher worlds and this world were completely separate. The physical could not become spiritual. Once the Torah was given, this barrier disappeared. The giving of the Torah was the bringing down of Hashem's essence, within the Torah itself.

We now see how the sacrifices of the Third Temple will be the ideal. They will have the advantage of the times of the Garden of Eden when there was no evil in the world and their entire purpose was to bring Hashem closer, while at the same time being able to fully bring down Hashem's essence because the barrier that separated the higher worlds from this one was removed at the time of the giving of the Torah.

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